Category Archives: monetary penalty notice

The monetary penalty notice is in the post

UPDATE: 29.01.15 The BBC now reports that files relating to the role of the police in the deaths of two other members of the public have apparently been “lost in the post”. This starts to look very serious.  END UPDATE

I once heard a rumour that the famous lost HMRC disks of 2007 were not in fact lost after all: the person tasked with posting the disks had, so the rumour went, forgotten to do so, and when the intended recipient, the National Audit Office, had complained, had used the time-honoured excuse “they must be lost in the post”, thinking that this was better than owning up, and that no one would be particularly bothered. I have no idea whether this is true (quite possibly not – the subsequent Poynter report was comprehensive and might have been expected to flush something like that out) but what I think is interesting is that, even if it were, it would not have excused HMRC. The Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA) – which largely languished unloved at the time – requires (by virtue of the seventh principle in Schedule One) a data controller not to prevent specific instances of data loss, but, rather, to take appropriate organisational and technical measures to safeguard against such loss – a contravention of the Act lies in the failure to have these measures in place, not (necessarily) in the failure to prevent a specific incident. The fact that HMRC operated procedures which allowed the sending of huge and excessive amounts of sensitive personal data  by post, without encryption measures being used, meant that HMRC were manifestly in contravention of the DPA.

Fast forward seven years or so to the present, and, we hear, the Ministry of Justice (MoJ) appear to have lost a highly sensitive computer disk in the post. The Mail on Sunday reports that

The Government has been hit by a new data security scandal after a secret file on the fatal shooting of Mark Duggan by police went missing.

A computer disk containing details of the case which triggered Britain’s worst riots in a generation is thought to have been lost in the post by the Ministry of Justice.

Details are, of course, relatively scant at the moment, but it is worth noting that there is no mention of whether the disk in question was encrypted. If it wasn’t, it would be extremely hard for the MoJ to argue that it was in compliance with its DPA obligations: the view of the Information Commissioner (ICO) is that

portable and mobile devices including magnetic media, used to store and transmit personal information, the loss of which could cause damage or distress to individuals, should be protected using approved encryption software which is designed to guard against the compromise of information.

and

where such losses occur and where encryption software has not been used to protect the data, regulatory action may be pursued.

The data protection regulatory landscape was very different in 2007, and the ICO did not then have powers to serve monetary penalty notices. A serious contravention of the DPA of a kind likely to cause substantial damage or substantial distress can now result in a “fine” of up to £500,000.

The ICO is, we are told, “examining the case”. He will, no doubt, be wanting to know not only about encryption measures, but, more simply, what procedures were in place which allowed such sensitive data to be sent by post. He will also, again no doubt, bear in mind that in recent years he has already served on the MoJ, in the last eighteen months, two monetary penalties totalling £320,000 for not dissimilar failures to have appropriate safeguards in place to protect sensitive personal data.

The views in this post (and indeed all posts on this blog) are my personal ones, and do not represent the views of any organisation I am involved with.

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Hidden data in FOI disclosures

The Hackney Gazette reports that details of 15,000 residents have been published on the internet after Hackney Council apparently inadvertently disclosed the data when responding to a Freedom of Information (FOI) request made using the WhatDoTheyKnow site.

This is not the first time that such apparently catastrophic inadvertent disclosures have happened through WhatDoTheyKnow, and, indeed, in 2012 MySociety, who run the site, issued a statement following a similar incident with Islington Council. As that made clear

responses sent via WhatDoTheyKnow are automatically published online without any human intervention – this is the key feature that makes this site both valuable and popular

It is clearly the responsibility of the authorities in question to ensure that no hidden or exempt information is included in FOI disclosures via WhatDoTheyKnow, or indeed, in FOI disclosures in general. A failure to have appropriate organisational and technical safeguards in place can lead to enforcement action by the Information Commissioner’s Office for contraventions of the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA): Islington ended up with a monetary penalty notice of £70,000 for their incident, which involved 2000 people. Although the number of data subjects involved is not the only factor the ICO will take into account when deciding what action to take, it is certainly a relevant one: 15000 affected individuals is a hell of a lot.

What concerns me is this sort of thing keeps happening. We don’t know the details of this incident yet, but with such large numbers of data subjects involved it seems likely that it will have involved some sort of dataset, and I would not be at all surprised if it involved purportedly masked or hidden data, such as in a pivot table [EDIT – I’m given to understand that this incident involved cached data in MS Excel]. Around the time of the Islington incident the ICO’s Head of Policy Steve Wood published a blog post drawing attention to the risks. A warning also takes the form of a small piece on a generic page about request handling, which says

take care when using pivot tables to anonymise data in a spreadsheet. The spreadsheet will usually still contain the detailed source data, even if this is hidden and not immediately visible at first glance. Consider converting the spreadsheet to a plain text format (such as CSV) if necessary.

This is fine, but does it go far enough? Last year I wrote on the Guardian web site, and called for greater efforts to be made to highlight the issue. I think that what I wrote then still holds

The ICO must work with the government to offer advice direct to chief executives and those reponsible for risk at councils and NHS bodies (and perhaps other bodies, but these two sectors are probably the highest risk ones). So far these disclosure errors do not appear to have led to harm to those individuals whose private information was compromised, but, without further action, I fear it is only a matter of time.

Time will tell whether this Hackney incident results in a finding of DPA contravention, and ICO enforcement, but in the interim I wish the word would get spread around about how to avoid disclosing hidden data in spreadsheets.

The views in this post (and indeed all posts on this blog) are my personal ones, and do not represent the views of any organisation I am involved with.

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PARKLIFE! (and a £70k monetary penalty)

In August this year I reported that the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) had effectively conceded it had no current powers to issue monetary penalties on spam texters. This was after the Upper Tribunal had indicated that in most cases the sending of such texts was not likely to cause substantial damage or substantial distress (this being part of the statutory test for serving a monetary penalty notice (MPN) for a serious contravention of the Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003) (PECR).

What I’d forgotten were the reports of highly distasteful and in some cases highly distressing texts sent in May to festival-goers by the organisers of the Parklife festival in Manchester’s Heaton Park. The texts didn’t disclose that they were from the event organisers, but instead purported to come from “Mum” and were advertising extra events at the festival.

Regulation 23 of PECR outlaws the sending of direct marketing texts (and other direct marketing electronic communications) where the sender’s identity has been disguised or concealed.

As the Manchester Evening News reported at the time receiving the texts in question left many recipients who had lost their mothers distressed and upset.

And so it came to pass that, as the same newspaper reveals today, the ICO investigated complaints about the marketing, and appears to have determined that the sending of the texts was a serious contravention of PECR regulation 23, and it was of a kind likely to cause substantial distress. The paper reveals that an MPN of £70000 has been served on the organisers, and the ICO has confirmed this on its website, and the MPN itself lists a number of the complaints made by affected recipients.

So, I, and the ICO’s Steve Eckersley, were wrong – powers to serve MPNs for spam texts do still currently exist, although it must be said that this was an exceptional case: most spam texts are irritating, rather than as callous and potentially distressing as these. And this is why the Ministry of Justice is, as I have previously discussed, consulting on lowering, or dropping altogether, the “harm threshold” for serving MPNs for serious PECR contraventions.

The views in this post (and indeed all posts on this blog) are my personal ones, and do not represent the views of any organisation I am involved with.

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No harm done

Why does nobody listen to me?

Quite a few media outlets and commentators have picked up on the consultation by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport I blogged about recently. The consultation is about the possibility of legislative change to make it easier for the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO)(ICO) to “fine” (in reality, serve a civil monetary penalty notice) on people or organisations who commit serious contraventions of ePrivacy law in sending unsolicited electronic marketing messages (aka spam calls, texts, emails etc).

However, almost every report I have seen has missed a crucial point. So, we have The Register saying “ICO to fine UNBIDDEN MARKETEERS who cause ‘ANXIETY’…Inconvenience, annoyance also pass the watchdog’s stress test”, and Pinsent Masons, Out-Law.com saying “Unsolicited marketing causing ‘annoyance, inconvenience or anxiety’ could result in ICO fine”. We even have 11KBW’s formidable Christopher Knight saying

the DCMS has just launched a consultation exercise on amending PECR with a view to altering the test from “substantial damage or distress” to causing “annoyance, inconvenience or anxiety”

But none of these spot that the preferred option of DCMS, and the ICO is actually to go further, and give the ICO the power to serve a monetary penalty notice even when no harm has been shown at all

Remove the existing legal threshold of “substantial damage and distress” (this is the preferred option of both ICO and DCMS. There would be no need to prove “substantial damage and distress”, or any other threshold such as ‘annoyance, inconvenience or anxiety’…

So yes, this is a blog post purely to moan about the fact that people haven’t read my previous post. It’s my blog and I’ll cry if I want to.

UPDATE:

Chris Knight is so formidable that he’s both updated the Panopticon post and pointed out the oddness of option 3 being preferred when nearly all of the consultation paper is predicated on option 2 being victorious.

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DCMS consulting on lower threshold for “fining” spammers

UPDATE: 08.11.14

Rich Greenhill has spotted another odd feature of this consultation. Options one and two both use the formulation “the contravention was deliberate or the person knew or ought to have known that there was a risk that the contravention would occur”, however, option three omits the words “…or ought to have known”. This is surely a typo, because if it were a deliberate omission it would effectively mean that penalties could not be imposed for negligent contraventions (only deliberate or wilful contraventions would qualify). I understand Rich has asked DCMS to clarify this, and will update as and when he hears anything.

END UPDATE

UPDATE: 04.11.14

An interesting development of this story was how many media outlets and commentators reported that the consultation was about lowering the threshold to “likely to cause annoyance, inconvenience or anxiety”, ignoring in the process that the preferred option of DCMS and ICO was for no harm threshold at all. Christopher Knight, on 11KBW’s Panopticon blog kindly amended his piece when I drew this point to his attention. He did, however observe that most of the consultation paper, and DCMS’s website, appeared predicated on the assumption that the lower-harm threshold was at issue. Today, Rich Greenhill informs us all that he has spoken to DCMS, and that their preference is indeed for a “no harm” approach: “Just spoke to DCMS: govt prefers PECR Option 3 (zero harm), its PR is *wrong*”. How very odd.

END UPDATE

The Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) has announced a consultation on lowering the threshold for the imposing of financial sanctions on those who unlawfully send electronic direct marketing. They’ve called it a “Nuisance calls consultation”, which, although they explain that it applies equally to nuisance text messages, emails etc., doesn’t adequately describe what could be an important development in electronic privacy regulation.

When, a year ago, the First-tier Tribunal (FTT) upheld the appeal by spam texter Christopher Niebel against the £300,000 monetary penalty notice (MPN) served on him by the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO), it put the latter in an awkward position. And when the Upper Tribunal dismissed the ICO’s subsequent appeal, there was binding authority on the limits to the ICO’s power to serve MPNs for serious breaches of the Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003 (PECR). There was no dispute that, per the mechanism at section 55A of the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA), adopted by PECR by virtue of regulation 31, Niebel’s contraventions were serious and deliberate, but what was at issue was whether they were “of a kind likely to cause substantial damage or substantial distress”. The FTT held that they were not – no substantial damage would be likely to arise and when it came to distress

the effect of the contravention is likely to be widespread irritation but not widespread distress…we cannot construct a logical likelihood of substantial distress as a result of the contravention.

When the Upper Tribunal agreed with the FTT, and the ICO’s Head of Enforcement said it had “largely [rendered] our power to issue fines for breaches of PECR involving spam texts redundant” it seemed clear that, for the time being at least, there was in effect a green light for spam texters, and, by extension, other spam electronic marketers. The DCMS consultation is in response to calls from the ICO, and others, such as the All Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) on Nuisance Calls, the Direct Marketing Association and Which for a change in the law.

The consultation proposes three options – 1) do nothing, 2) lower the threshold from “likely to cause substantial damage or substantial distress” to “likely to cause annoyance, inconvenience or anxiety”, or 3) remove the threshold altogether, so any serious and deliberate (or reckless) contravention of the PECR provisions would attract the possibility of a monetary penalty. The third option is the one favoured by DCMS and the ICO.

If either of the second or third options is ultimately enacted, this could, I feel, lead to a significant reduction in the prevalence of spam marketing. The consultation document notes that (despite the fact that the MPN was overturned on appeal) the number of unsolicited spam SMS text message sent reduced by a significant number after the Niebel MPN was served. A robust and prominent campaign of enforcement under a legislative scheme which makes it much easier to impose penalties to a maximum of £500,000, and much more difficult to appeal them, could put many spammers out of business, and discourage others. This will be subject, of course, both to the willingness and the resources of the ICO. The consultation document notes that there might be “an expectation that [MPNs] would be issued by the ICO in many more cases than its resources permit” but the ICO has said (according to the document) that it is “ready and equipped to investigate and progress a significant number of additional cases with a view to taking greater enforcement action including issuing more CMPs”.

There appears to be little resistance (as yet, at least) to the idea of lowering or removing the penalty threshold. Given that, and given the ICO’s apparent willingness to take on the spammers, we may well see a real and significant attack on the scourge. Of course, this only applies to identifiable spammers in the domestic jurisdiction – let’s hope it doesn’t just drive an increase in non-traceable, overseas spam.

 

 

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Theft of police video interviews – a data protection issue for the CPS?

The theft of recordings of police interviews with victims of sexual abuse from a Manchester firm has potentially serious data protection implications for the CPS

UPDATE: 22 September – the Manchester Evening News reports that the burglary took place at a flat. No doubt the ICO, and the CPS will want to know whether the storage of hardware by the firm was appropriate to the sensitivity of the data held. END UPDATE

The 7th principle in Schedule One of the Data Protection Act 1998 requires a data controller to have appropriate technical and organisational measures in place to safeguard against loss etc. of personal data. Furthermore, if the data controller is appointing a contractor to process personal data, it should select that contractor on the basis that it has equivalent measures in place, ensure that the contractor only acts on instructions from the data controller and all of this should be evidenced in writing. Failure to comply with this 7th principle is a contravention of the data controller’s obligation under section 4(4), and serious contraventions, of a kind likely to cause substantial damage or substantial distress, can attract enforcement action from the Information Commissioner (ICO), including monetary penalty notices (MPNs), to a maximum of £500,000. Note the “likely” – a near miss, in data security terms, can still lead to an MPN. It is the failure to have appropriate measures in place (or a suitable contract) which is the contravention of the DPA – not the data security incident in itself.

With this in mind, the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) must be considering its vulnerability to enforcement action by the ICO, following reports of thefts of highly sensitive recordings of video interviews with victims of alleged sexual abuse from a Manchester video editing firm contracted by the CPS. This may be the case even though the stolen material has apparently been recovered. The Mail reports that

The CPS said it was now demanding an ‘urgent explanation’ of the security arrangements that had been in place

but this in itself points towards a possible prior lack of suitable oversight of the contractual arrangements

Keith Vaz, Chair of the Commons Home Affairs Committee, has expressed surprise that a private firm was involved (which shows either a certain naivety, or disingenuity) but has also said that he will be challenging the Head of the CPS about the security breach when she appears before the committee next month. One suspects the ICO will also be challenging her to explain what arrangements were in place to ensure compliance with the DPA.

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Some observations on the MoJ £180,000 data protection “fine”

1. It wasn’t a fine: section 55A of the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA) gives the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) the power to impose a monetary penalty notice (MPN) to a maximum of £500,000 on a data controller which has made a serious contravention of its obligation to comply with the data protection principles, and the contravention was of a kind likely to cause substantial damage or substantial distress (and the data controller knew or should have known about the risk). There is often confusion over the civil and criminal sanctions in the DPA, perhaps not helped by the fact that the main criminal sanction is at section 55, and the main civil sanction at section 55A. However, although the incorrect use of the term “fine” is understandable in some circumstances, I don’t think the ICO themselves should use it.

2. The money goes straight back to the government: this is true – monetary penalties do not get paid to the ICO. Rather, they are paid into the Consolidated Fund – the government’s bank account. While this does have an element of absurdity (and similar complaints are sometimes made when the ICO serves MPNs on other public bodies, such as the NHS, or local authorities) recent research (and personal anecdotal experience) suggests that the MPNs are effective in improving data controller compliance. One wonders if alternative methods, like individual liability for data controller failings (which would require major primary legislation), would have similar effects.

3. The Ministry of Justice funds the ICO: in part, at least. The MoJ funds the ICO for its freedom of information work. Its data protection work comes from the fees data controllers pay the ICO to appear on its register. Nonetheless, penalising the MoJ could be seen as biting the hand that feeds – it is commendable that the ICO is not afraid to do so.

4. The MoJ is data controller for prisoner data within prisons: being the person or persons who determine the purposes for which and the manner in which any personal data are, or are to be, processed. That’s a heck of a lot of highly sensitive personal data to be responsible for. And such responsibility carries potential huge liability for errors.

5. This is not the first MPN the MoJ has received: less than 12 months ago the MoJ received an MPN of £140,000 for a remarkably similar set of events to those which prompted the latest MPN. Both MPNs involved insecure processes to safeguard prisoner databases – in the first an unencrypted database file was emailed to a member of the public, and in the second a hard disk containing a prisoner database, which should have been encrypted but wasn’t, has been lost. As MPNs are often served (as these were) for contraventions of the obligation to have appropriate organisational and technical measures in place to safeguard against loss of data, one might argue that a second such serious contravention might have warranted even more severe sanctions. The ICO even notes that the second contravention was because of a botched attempt to put right what happened in the first, and deems the second contravention “very serious” (as opposed to the first’s “serious”). I am not the only person I have spoken to who is surprised this latest MPN was not higher.

and finally

6. Data security is not just about technology: it’s also about people. In this instance the MoJ, after its first MPN (see above), sent hard drives to all relevant prisons which were capable of holding data in encrypted format.

But they forgot to tell the prison staff to switch encryption on.

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Red light for ICO spam text “fines”

A week ago I noted that the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) had effectively conceded that, since the Upper Tribunal’s decision in the Niebel case, it could not realistically serve monetary penalty notices (MPNs) on spam texters. I observed that

the result of the Niebel litigation has been to remove their powers to serve MPNs for spam texts, [with the ICO saying] it had “largely [rendered] our power to issue fines for breaches of PECR involving spam texts redundant”.

This perception has been reinforced by the press release today from the ICO, reporting a raid on a claims management call centre “thought to be connected to a spam text operation”. Information and hardware were seized in the raid, but the ICO says it

will now consider whether an enforcement notice compelling the organisation to comply with the rules regarding text marketing can be issued

Notably, no reference to an MPN is made. To recap, MPNs can be served under section 55A of the Data Protection Act 1998 to serve such a notice if there has been a serious contravention of the Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003 (PECR) of a kind likely to cause substantial damage or substantial distress. The Niebel litigation, in very broad terms, cast doubt on whether receiving spam texts could ever cause substantial damage or substantial distress (as opposed to, say, irritation).

Whether this Llanelli operation was in contravention of the law, and if so what sanctions will flow will no doubt be determined on the basis of the seized information and other information.

And although enforcement notices are serious sanctions, with breach of one being a criminal offence (although not a recordable one) whether people running spam texting operations see them as a real deterrent is another matter.

 

 

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Green light for spam texters – for now

The ICO has effectively conceded he has no current powers to issue monetary penalties on spam texters.

In June this year the Upper Tribunal dismissed the appeal by the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) against the quashing of a £300,000 monetary penalty notice (the MPN) served on spam texter Christopher Niebel. The MPN had been issued pursuant to the ICO’s powers under section 55A of the Data Protection Act 1998 to serve such a notice if there has been a serious contravention of the Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003 (PECR) of a kind likely to cause substantial damage or substantial distress. The Upper Tribunal held that the First-tier Tribunal had not erred in law in finding that the ICO’s relevant interpretation of “distress” was unsustainable:

the tribunal took issue with the Commissioner’s guidance as to the meaning of “distress” and, in my opinion rightly so. According to that guidance, “Distress is any injury to feelings, harm or anxiety suffered by an individual” (at paragraph [12], emphasis added). The tribunal’s conclusion was that if this “involves the proposition that it is not possible to have ‘any injury to feelings’ which falls short of ‘distress’ then, it seems to us, that the definition is at odds with common experience and with the ordinary use of English [¶60]

As the law required evidence that Niebel’s company’s sending of spam texts had been of a kind likely to cause substantial distress, and as the ICO’s evidence did not match up to this, the MPN had been rightly quashed. Implicitly, the Upper Tribunal was suggesting that further MPNs of this kind would also not be sustainable, and, explicitly, it questioned whether, if Parliament wanted to give the ICO powers to financially punish spam texters, it would require a change in the law

[a] more profitable course of action, is for the statutory test to be revisited…a statutory test that was formulated in terms of e.g. annoyance, inconvenience and/or irritation, rather than “substantial damage or substantial distress”, might well have resulted in a different outcome.

To no real surprise, since the ICO lost this appeal, no further MPNs have been issued for spam texting (some have been served for spam telephone calls). Now the ICO, in a blog post by their Head of Enforcement Steve Eckersley has effectively conceded that the result of the Niebel litigation has been to remove their powers to serve MPNs for spam texts, saying it had “largely [rendered] our power to issue fines for breaches of PECR involving spam texts redundant”. And Eckersley picks up the call for a law change, confirming that there will be a consultation later this year (whether any of this will see results this side of the general election, however, is another question).  This call echoes one made by the Information Commissioner himself, who said in February

We have just got to lower that hurdle because I think if you ask most people they would say silent calls and unsolicited spam texts are one of the great curses of the age – and if the Information Commissioner can’t protect you it’s a poor lookout.
There are, of course, other strings to the ICO bow, and Eckersley refers to some of them
we are using our existing powers to hold companies to account and to disrupt their unlawful activities….and we are obtaining undertakings from and issuing enforcement notices, effectively cease-and-desist orders, to companies that breach PECR.
This sounds good, but leaves me rather puzzled: as the ICO has confirmed to me, no enforcement notices have been served and only one undertaking obtained, against companies or individuals who have sent spam texts in breach of PECR. Enforcement notices are a strong power – breach of one is a criminal offence – and only require the ICO to consider whether the PECR contravention has caused or is likely to cause any person damage or distress, not “substantial damage or substantial distress”. This lower threshold should make it much more difficult for enforcement to be resisted. Maybe some enforcement notices are on their way? One rather hopes so, because, for the moment, it looks like spam texters have received a green light.
EDITED TO ADD:
Tim Turner points out to me that a conviction for breach of an enforcement notice is not a recordable offence it will not make its way on to the Police National Computer, and will not therefore generally result in disclosure for, e.g. employment purposes. Tim’s view, and it is a compelling one, is that for a lot of spammers the threat of a minor conviction for breach of a legal notice is not one which is likely to dissuade them from their practice.

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Watch out lawyers – the ICO has you in his sights

The Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) has “sounded the alarm” to the legal profession regarding breaches of the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA). In a press release today it says it is

warning barristers and solicitors to keep personal information secure, especially paper files. This follows a number of data breaches reported to the ICO involving the legal profession

Fifteen incidents (which, of course, are not in themselves, breaches of the DPA)  involving members of the legal profession have been reported to the ICO in the last three months, and the release goes on to point out that

The information handled by barristers and solicitors is often very sensitive. This means that the damage caused by a data breach could meet the statutory threshold for issuing a financial penalty. Legal professionals will also often carry around large quantities of information in folders or files when taking them to or from court, and may store them at home. This can increase the risk of a data breach

This of course is shorthand for what enforcement of the DPA really entails. Solicitors and barristers will often be data controllers pursuant to section 1(1) of the DPA (but not always – in-house lawyers are employees, and their employer will generally be the relevant data controller) and as such they will have an obligation under section 4(4) DPA to comply with the data protection principles of Schedule One. The seventh principle requires a data controller to take

Appropriate technical and organisational measures…against unauthorised or unlawful processing of personal data and against accidental loss or destruction of, or damage to, personal data

and this is what the ICO refers to (or should refer to) when it talks about a “data breach”: a data security incident (such as loss of files) might occur as a result of a seventh principle breach, but, equally, it might not (I blogged at length on this distinction previously).

Nonetheless, the ICO will often give a shot across the bows of a particular group or industry, prior to taking formal enforcement action, such as the serving of monetary penalty notices, to a maximum of £500,000. The likelihood of any individual barrister or solicitor or any but the very largest firms getting such a large penalty is very very low (the ICO’s own rules state that he must take into account the impact on a data controller of a penalty). That said, all lawyers would do well to check their compliance with the DPA, and with their information security obligations.

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